Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson’s Disease
Keywords: Anxiety, depression, gender, Parkinson’s Disease
AbstractBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe motor symptoms. The main pathological finding is an evident loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Sleep disturbances, apathy, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, and depression are neuropsychiatric symptoms also found in PD patients. As sex hormones are important factors driving structural and functional sexual differentiation in the brain, gender differences among PD patients are to be expected. Aim: To analyze gender differences in depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Peer-reviewed literature was analyzed on PubMed database from January 2000 through July 2019. Results: 50% of the patients with PD fulfill DSM-V criteria for major depressive episode, 40% have symptoms consistent with anxiety disorders. Women with PD have greater severity of non-motors diseases than men. Conclusion: PD and its neuropsychiatric symptoms are multifactorial but appear to be gender influenced, with a higher prevalence among women.