Interaction between enviromental-genetics factors and epigenesis Parkinson's disease
In this review we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the interaction between genetics and environmental factors involved in neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The discovery of several genes responsible for the familial forms has led to a better comprehension of the molecular pathways involved in the selective neuronal degeneration. However, the vast majority of the cases occur as sporadic forms, likely resulting from complex gene–environment interplay. Several environmental factors, including, pesticides, metals, head injuries, lifestyles and dietary habits have been associated with increased disease risk or even with protection. Hundreds of genetic variants have been investigated as possible risk factors for the sporadic forms, but results are often conflicting, not repeated or inconclusive. New approaches to environmental health research are revealing us that at the basis there could be chemically induced changes in gene regulation and emphasize the importance of understanding the susceptibility of the human epigenome to dietary and other environmental effects.